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H-3 opens

H-3, Hawaii's third highway to be part of the federal interstate system, opened to the first drivers after years of construction delays. Interest in building the road began in the post-World War II years when a Cold War mentality emphasized security. Envisioned as a defense highway linking the Marine station at Mokapu with Pearl Harbor, preliminary planning began in 1959. Road building was halted and delayed over the years by archeological finds, route changes, legal challenges, and the practical challenges of boring twin tunnels between Ha'iku and Halawa valleys. Hawaii's Senator Inouye removed the last obstacles by winning the project legal exemption from all federal environmental laws. Once complete, the 15-mile road was the most expensive in U.S. history, costing $100 million per mile.

 Sites for further information

Interstate Route H-3 (Department of Transportation Hawaii)
www.hawaii.gov/dot/publicaffairs/h-3/

"Open Road" (Star-Bulletin)
starbulletin.com/97/12/03/news/story2.html

"Rocky Road: Even with the opening at hand, many Hawaiians say protests may not end" (Star-Bulletin)
starbulletin.com/97/12/04/news/story3.html

"H-3 Gets Green Light Today" (Star-Bulletin)
starbulletin.com/97/12/12/news/story3.html

"The Trans-Koolau Tunnel" A Diagram of the H-3 (Star- Bulletin)
starbulletin.com/97/12/04/news/hiway.jpg

"H-3: The Island Interstate" (U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Adminstration)
www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer93/p93su16.htm

"Paradise Crossed" by Ray Bert
www.pubs.asce.org/ceonline/paradise.html

"Pride and Partnership: Completing the Interstate H-3" (U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Adminstration)
www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/may98/h3.htm

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